Orientation of Charges
Most charges have a default orientation - i.e. they normally face in a set direction and have a defined "upright" position. This can be changed by using the following modifiers after the charge. They can be used in combination also.
inverted flipped top to bottom
reversed flipped left to right
fesswise If the charge is "tall", lay it on its side. The direction it points in depends on the type of charge
palewise If the charge is "wide", turn it to stand up straight
bendwise, bendwise sinister Rotate 45 degrees to the right or left, respectively
Orientation and Arrangements
Although orientation may seem to the same concept as arrangement, it is different because you can combine both orientation and arrangement, for example charges may be fesswise in pale (orientated in a particular arrangement), and this is different from in pale on its own.
Orientation of Ordinaries
With ordinaries, the only modifiers for orientation that can be used are reversed and inverted; these are pretty interchangeable and usually mean "the other way around".
When charges are placed on an ordinary they will sometimes automatically have an orientation applied to better match them to the ordinary, for example birds are typically orientated bendwise sinister when placed on a bend. This can be over-ridden by specifying your own orientation.