Axe, (fr. hache): there are various kinds of axes and hatchets. It is impossible to classify them, or give the whole of the varieties; but the following will be found the chief forms which appear. The handle of the axe is sometimes called the stave, or an axe may be hafted(fr. manché), and the blade is often referred to.
1. The common axe or hatchet, is usually represented as shewn in the margin.
In the arms of the TURNERS' Company it is represented somewhat differently.
Gules, three axes argent--AXALL.
Azure, three axes argent, handles or--AXTELL, Devon.
2. Adz or Addice: this has the blade set transversely to the flattened handle, and is sometimes called the carpenter's axe.
Argent, three addices azure, handles or--ADDICE.
Azure, three carpenter's axes argent--WRIGHT, Scotland.
Gules, a chevron between three carpenter's axes or, hafted argent--PENFOLD.
3. Brick, or Bricklayer's-axe: a charge in the armorial insignia of the Company of BRICKLAYERS and TILERS, of London. The metal portion only of the axe in exhibited, and this is made broad with the sides hollowed, as shewn in the margin.
Azure, a chevron or; in chief a fleur-de-lys argent enters[i.e. between] two brick axes palewise of the second; in base a bundle of laths of the last--BRICKLAYERS' Company, incorp. 1508.
4. Chipping-axe: this occurs in the arms of the London Company of MARBLERS(afterwards united to the MASONS), and is the axe which is still used by quarrymen in chipping the stones before they leave the quarry.
Gules, a chevron argent between in chief two chipping-axes of the last and in base a mallet or--Company of MARBLERS.
5. The Slaughter-axe. The axe used by butchers for killing animals. Such an axe occurs in the arms of the BUTCHERS' Company.
Azure, two slaughter-axes addorsed in saltire argent, handles or between three bull's heads couped as the second armed of the third, viz. two in fess and one in base, on a chief silver a boar's head couped gules, between two block brushes (i.e. bunches of knee holly or butcher's broom) vert--COMPANY OF BUTCHERS, London and Exeter.
Sable, three pick-axes argent--PIGOTT, Cambridge.
Argent, three hews or miner's pick-axes sable--William CHARE, in Trinity College Chapel, Cambridge.
Azure, three pick-axes or--PACKWOOD, Warwick.
Argent, three pick-axes gules--PICKWORTH.
Argent, on a cross engrailed sable a compass dial in the centre between four pheons or; a chief gules charged with a level staff enclosed by two double coal-picks or--FLETCHER, co. Derby, granted 1731.
See also Mill-pick.
7. Battle-axe(fr. hache d'armes), is variously represented. The common form is given in the margin, and it is found very frequently employed as a crest.
Azure, a battle-axe or, headed argent, the edge to the sinister--HEYNGESTON.
Argent, a battle-axe, head downwards, held by a lion rampant guardant proper, within a border azure--CRACKNELL, Devon.
Azure, three battle-axes or, staves argent--BAINBRIDGE.
Azure, a battle-axe in pale or, headed argent--OLDMIXON, Somerset.
8. The Broad-axe seems to be so called only from the breadth of the blade differing in no other respect from other axes.
Sable, three broad axes argent--Sir John PORTER.
Gules, three broad axes argent, a demi fleur-de-lis joined to each handle with inside or, between as many pierced mullets of the last--Thomas TREGOLD.
9. The Danish axe was probably so called because it occurred in the royal arms of that kingdom, in which it is drawn like a Lochabar axe, but some apply the named to an axe whose blade is notched at the back. There is a form without the notch borne by HAKELUT, and called a Danish hatchet. The Indian tomahawk occurs in the arms of HOPKINS, granted 1764.
Sire Walter HAKELUT, de goules, a iij haches daneys de or, e une daunce de argent--Roll, temp. EDW. II.
Sable, three Danish axes argent--DAYNES, Devon.
Gules, five Danish axes palewise in saltire argent--ROGER MACHADO, [Clarenceux King of Arms, temp. Henry VIII.]
Gules, a Danish battle-axe argent, held by an arms in armour proper--HINGSTON, Devon.
10. The Lochabar axe has a curved handle and a very broad blade, and represents perhaps a Scotch axe.
Gules, a Lochabar axe between three boar's heads erased argent--RANKEN, Scotland.
Argent, two Lochabar axes in saltire heads upward, between a cock in chief and a rose in base--MATHESON, Benetsfield.
11. Pole-axe, or Halbert, (fr. haillebarde): the axe with a long pole, often called the halbert or halberd. It was used by the men at arms in processions and on great occasions for keeping back the crowed.
Argent, two halberts in saltire azure--ECCLES, Scotland.
Gules, two pole-axes in saltire or, headed argent, between four mullets of the last--PITMAN, Suffolk.
Gules, three pole-axes or--Sir Walter HAKELETT, temp. Edward I.
Azure, a halbert or, the edge to the sinister, its lance-head argent--HEYNGESTON.
Ermine, two halberts in saltire sable--MAGDESTON, Lincoln.