Saltire, or saltier, (fr. sautoir): this honourable ordinary is supposed to represent the cross whereon S.Andrew was crucified, and the standard or banner of S.Andrew is one bearing the saltire argent on a field azure.
The plain saltire is nothing but a cross placed in a different position, and whatever was the origin of the one as a device upon a shield, was probably also the origin of the other. Almost all the forms incident to the cross are likewise applicable to the saltire. They may be humetty, and in a French example to which the term engoulé is applied, the arms of the cross are terminated by Leopards' heads, their mouths holding the ends.
As will be observed, the 'sautoir' occurs in the ancient rolls, and it may be added that in one roll temp. ED. II., out of twenty-eight examples of the saltire only ten are plain and eighteen are engrailed.
Robert de BRUS, d'or, ung saltoir de goules; et ung cheif de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Foulke de ESCHARDESTON, de goules ung sautoir d'argent engrele--Ibid.
Sire Raudolf de NEVYLE, de goules a une sautour de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Monsire Rauf de NEVILL, port de gules une salter d'argent--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Monsire de TIBETOT, port d'argent une salter engrele de gules--Ibid.
Argent, a lion sejant gardant gules armed and langued azure holding in his dexter paw a thistle proper, and in his sinister a shield of the second, on a chief azure a S.Andrew's cross of the first--LYON OFFICE, or OFFICE OF ARMS AT EDINBURGH.
Argent, on a saltire gules an escallop or--See of ROCHESTER. [The Cathedral Church being dedicated of S.Andrew.]
Argent, a saltire counter embattled sable--Richard KIDDER, Bp. of Bath and Wells, 1691-1703.
Argent, a saltire azure botonny or--BASINGHOLD.
Gules, on saltire argent, another humetty of the field; in chief a mitre coroneted, stringed or--arms ascribed to GERARD; Bp. of Hereford, 1096; of York, 1100-8.
Gules, four quatrefoils two and two or; in base a saltire couped argent--PALMER, co. Warwick.
Argent, a cross moline saltirewise--BANESTER.
Or, a lion rampant supporting a saltire engrailed humetty gules--John WOLTON, Bp. of Exeter, 1579-94.
Ecartelé aux 1 et 4 d'azur, au chevron ondé d'argent, accompagné de trois têtes de léopard d'or languées de gueules; aux 2 et 3 de gueules, au sautoir d'or engoulé de quatres têtes de léopard mouvantes des angles chargé en cœur[i.e. in fesse point], d'une autre tête de léopard du champ--DE JACOB DE LA COTTIERE.
As to the expression a saltire lozengy, as has ben said respecting the Cross Lozengy(see §8), there seems to have ben great carelessness in the blazon by the heralds of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It should be described where there is one tincture, a saltire of so many lozenges, &c. The first example of the following is clear; the others leave it obscure as to what is meant, and how the lozenges, &c., should be arranged.
Or, a saltire lozengy gules and argent--BELHOUSE.
Or, a saltire lozengy vert--BELHOUSE.
Vert, a saltire lozengy or--FRANKES, also MALCAKE.
Vert, a saltire fusily or--FRANKE.
The Cross of S.Julian is a saltire crossed, or as otherwise described, a cross crosslet placed saltirewise. It is borne by the Company of INNHOLDERS, in consequence of their claiming S.Julian as their patron.
Argent, a cross of S.Julian[otherwise cross crosslet in saltire] sable--JULIAN, co. Lincoln.
Argent, five crosses Julian in saltire sable--THOROWGOOD.
Azure, a chevron per paly and per chevron gules and argent counterchanged, between three garbs or; on a chief argent two batons crossed at each end sable in saltire, the dexter surmounted by the sinister, commonly called S.Julian's Cross--INNHOLDERS' Company, [Inc. 1514].
The saltire may be parted per saltire(to which the awkward term saltiery has been given); more frequently the expression quarterly per saltire is used; an example, as it occurs in the see of WELLS before it was united with BATH, has been given under Quarterly.
Azure, a saltire per saltire quartered or and argent; on the dexter side two keys erect, interlaced at the bows, one or the other argent; on the sinister a sword erect--Bishoprick of Bath and Wells united, as borne by Bp. MONTAGUE in 1608(Edmondson).
Azure, an annulet ensigned with a cross pattée or, interlaced with a saltire conjoined in base of the last--Borough of SOUTHWARK.
Saltirewise, and in saltire, (fr. passé en sautoir), are words used to describe the position of charges placed in the form of that ordinary. The former is properly applied to two long charges, as swords, q.v., fishes, &c., when crossing each other bendwise, and the latter to five charges, placed 2, 1, 2; but, as will be observed, the terms are practically interchangeable, the latter, however, being more frequently used.
With reference to the former, it is necessary to state that the sword in bend dexter should be uppermost unless otherwise directed, because the dexter side, and consequently any thing placed in bend dexter, in more honourable than the sinister, though the distinction is but little attended to in practice. See examples under Keys, Mace, Scythe, &c.
Gules, two scythes in saltire argent--PRAYERS.
Gules, a fesse countercompony or and azure between six crosses crosslet argent placed saltireways--BUCK, Wisbeach, co. Cambridge.
Gules, five crosslets fitchy in saltire between four escallops or--TOWNSON, Bp. of Salisbury, 1620-21.
The term saltorel is sometimes used when three or more saltires occur, but it us hardly required. It is needless to say that must be couped; but it should be noted that the ends are not cut at right angles to the arms, but horizontally, and when the saltorel is engrailed the ends are left plain.
Argent, three saltires vert--GREENLAND.
Or, a saltire gules surmounted by another ermine, on a chief of the second three saltorels engrailed of the first--DYON, co. Lincoln.
Per saltire, see Quarterly per saltire.