Or, a crown sable garnished gold--BELLINGHAM.
Sable, three crowns or--LEE, co. York.
Crown royal of England, sometimes also called an Imperial crown. The forms of the crowns worn by the successive kings of England very considerably, and will be found in architectural illustrations of the sculptured heads of kings from monuments and other stone carvings in churches[see examples in Rickman's Gothic Architecture, sixth and seventh Editions]; but in this place they must be considered only in their connection with armorial bearings. The earliest instance of the royal arms being ensigned with a crown is in the case of those of Henry VI. At this time the crown had attained its present form, with the exception of the number of arches. The arms of Edward IV. are surmounted by the rim of the crown only, adorned with crosses pattée and fleur-de-lis. The crown of Richard III. shews five semi-arches, that of Henry VII. shews but four, and his successor's only three, although seldom met with until about the time of James II., before which five semi-arches were generally shewn. Several instances of Royal crowns are found on coats of arms.
Gules, a royal crown or--M'ALPIN, Scotland.
Gules, a regal crown, within a double tressure-flory counter-flory or--ERSKINE, co. Fife.
Azure, a royal crown of gold; in chief a quarter gironny of eight or and sable; on the sinister side three dexter hands couped fesswise, each holding a bunch of arrows proper--MACKONOCHIE.
Argent, an arrow fesswise piercing a heart surmounted with a royal crown proper, on a chief azure three mullets of the first--DOUGLAS, Kent.
Azure, a stag trippant argent, unguled, attired, and bearing between his horns an imperial crown or--OWAIN GETHIN.
Ermine, on a chief gules three imperial crowns proper--Company of FURRIERS, Edinburgh.
The crown of Spain, as used by King Philip II., consort of Queen Mary of England, was a circle of gold jewelled, supporting eight strawberry-leaves. Four ogee arches, pearled, were sometimes added, meeting under a mound and cross pattée. No cap.
The crown of Scotland, as borne by James VI. before his succession to the throne of England, exactly resembled the imperial crown of Great Britain. It is represented in the Crest of Scotland(q.v.). This differs essentially from the actual crown of Scotland, discovered in Edinburgh Castle in 1817.
The crown of Hanover. The electorate of Hanover having been constituted a kingdom, the bonnet which had hitherto been placed over the insignia of that state was exchanged for a crown, in pursuance of a royal proclamation dated June 8, 1816.
The crown of Charlemagne. This crown having been borne by five kings of England as Arch-treasurers of the Holy Roman Empire, claims a place in the armory of Great Britain. Its form is generally depicted as in the margin.
The crown of a king of arms in of silver gilt, and consists of a circle inscribed with the words 'miserere mei Deus secundum magnam misericordiam tuam' (i.e. Ps. li. 1), supporting sixteen oak-leaves, each alternate leaf being somewhat higher than the rest. Nine only of these leaves are shewn in drawing, two of them being in profile. The cap is of crimson satin, turned up with ermine, and surmounted by a tassel of gold. The crowns of kings of arms formerly resembled that of the sovereign, or sometimes ducal coronets.
The other crowns used in British heraldry follow in alphabetical order.
Antique crown, Eastern crown, as it is sometimes called, is supposed to represent the crown anciently worn by Oriental princes, as appears by their coins. The unicorn supporting the royal arms is gorged with this kind of crown, but it probably is here in fact only the rim of the crown royal.
Argent, a bar wavy and a demi-otter issuant sable, armed, langued, and crowned with an antique crown, gules--MELDRUM.
Argent, a lion rampant gules, crowned with an antique crown or--ROCHE, Ireland, also SLOAN.
Ermine, on a chief engrailed sable three antique crowns or--EARLE, Bp. of Worcester, 1662; afterwards of Salisbury, 1663-65.
Argent, a lion rampant, tail nowed gules, gorged with an Eastern coronet or, in chief three falcons proper--BEWES, Cornwall.
Gules, a demi-Virgin couped below the shoulders, issuing from clouds all proper vested or, crowned with an eastern crown of the last, her hair dishevelled and wreathed round the temples with roses of the second, all within an orle of clouds proper--MERCERS' Company[inc. 1394, arms confirmed 1634].
Celestial crown: a crown resembling the Eastern, with the addition of a radiant star in the form of a mullet upon each point. This is frequently used as an ornament upon the achievements of deceased ladies.
Argent, three pastoral staves, two and one, each ensigned on the top with a crown celestial--WORTHINGTON.
Ermine, on a chief gules three prince's crowns composed of crosses pattee and fleur-de-lis or, with caps of the first tasselled of the third--SKINNERS' Company[inc. 1327, arms granted 1551].
Ducal crown: see post, under Coronet, but the term is sometimes used.
Imperial crown: is properly the crown peculiar to the German emperor, which forms part of the crest of STOKES of Cambridgeshire, though, as already said, in English arms the crown royal of these realms is often so called.
Or, an imperial crown gules--ROBINSON, Hertford.
Gules, an imperial crown supported by a sword in pale proper hilted and pommelled within a double tressure-flory counter-flory--SETON, Earl of Winton, 1306-29.
Or, a mural crown gules, between two barrulets azure and three wolf's heads erased sable--SEALE.
Erminois, on a pile embattled azure a mural crown between two caltraps in pale or--WALKER, Herts.
Argent, three griffins passant in pale azure murally gorged of the first, within a bordure sable bezanty--WILLS.
Gules, three mural coronets argent masoned sable--JOURDAN.
Crown palisado is a name given to a form of crown with, at it were, palisades upon it, and hence fancifully said to have been given by the Roman generals to him who first entered the enemies' camp by breaking through their outworks. It is called vallar, or vallary, from the Latin vallus, which practically means the palisade surmounting the vallum. It is sometimes(though less correctly) represented as the second figure, namely, with a champaine border.
Or, a crown vallery gules between three stags trippant proper--ROGERS, Denbigh.
Naval crown: a circle, having upon its upper edge four masts of galleys, each with a topsail, and as many sterns placed alternately. Imaginative heralds say it was invented by the Emperor Claudius as a reward for sea service.
Gules, six ancient naval crowns or--CLYTON, Scotland.
Azure, a lion rampant argent charged on the shoulder with an eagle displayed sable; on a chief wavy ermine, an anchor erect of the third, the shank surrounded with a naval crown, rim azure, sterns and sails proper--LOUIS, Devon.
Azure, a naval crown within an orle of twelve anchors or--LENDON[granted 1658].
Crown of Rue, (fr. Crancelin, from germ. Kranslein): the ancient arms of the Dukedom of Saxony were barry of eight, or and sable. The story goes that the bend vert was added by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, when he confirmed the dukedom on Bernard of Anhalt(c. 1156), who desiring some mark to distinguish him from the dukes of the former house, the emperor took a chaplet of rue which he had upon his head, and threw it across the shield. These were the paternal arms of the late Prince ALBERT. The bearing is sometimes called a ducal coronet in bend, and sometimes a bend archy coronetty.
Papal or Triple crown: see Tiara. Crown of Thorns: see Thorns, Crown of. The Crown Obsidional, and Crown Triumphal(composed of grass and of laurel or bay-leaves) have been already noticed under Chaplet.
Under the article Crown it is convenient to include Coronet, as the two terms are in some cases interchangeable.
From the reign of Edward III. coronets of various forms were worn(as it seems indiscriminately) by princes, dukes, earls, and even knights, but apparently rather by way of ornament than distinction, or if for distinction, only(like the collar of SS) as a mark of gentility. The helmet of Edward the Black Prince, upon his effigy at Canterbury, is surrounded with a coronet totally different from that subsequently assigned to his rank.
1. The coronet of the PRINCE OF WALES only differs from the royal crown in the omission of one of the arches. Edward, the son of Richard III., is recorded to have worn a demy crown on the day of his father's coronation at York(June 26, 1483); and was that day created Prince of Wales. It was formerly only the rim of the crown; but the arch was added in pursuance of a warrant of King Charles II., February 9, 1661.
2. That of the PRINCESS ROYAL has a coronet composed of four fleur-de-lis, two crosses, and two strawberry leaves; one of the crosses appearing in the centre. Within the circle is a cap of crimson velvet turned up with ermine, and closed at the top with a golden tassel.
4. That of PRINCES and PRINCESSES, sons and daughters of the above, is similar, except that strawberry-leaves are substituted for the fleur-de-lis. The Princes' crowns, however, are usually drawn in heraldry after a somewhat conventional manner.
Azure, a prince's coronet .... between two ostrich feathers in chief, a garb in base, all within a bordure sable bezanté--Town of EVESHAM.
Ermine, on a chief gules three prince's crowns composed of crosses pattée and fleur-de-lys or, with caps of the first, tasselled of the third--SKINNERS' Company[incorporated 1327, confirmed 1395].
5. That of DUKES is a circle of gold richly chased, and having upon its upper edge eight strawberry-leaves; only five are shewn in the drawing, two of them being in profile. The cap is of crimson velvet lined with white taffeta and turned up with ermine. At the top is a gold tassel. A coronet without the cap, and shewing but three leaves, is called a Ducal coronet, and frequently a Ducal crown.
Azure, three ducal crowns two and one or, each pierced with two arrows in saltire of the last--Abbey of BURY S.EDMUNDS.
Gules, two lions passant guardant in pale or; in chief two ducal coronets of the last--Priory of S.BARTHOLOMEW THE GREAT, London.
Gules, three ducal crowns or--See of ELY.
6. That of the MARQUIS is a rim of gold richly chased, supporting four strawberry-leaves and as many large pearls(or rather balls of silver) upon short points. The cap as before, though in heraldic drawings it is usually omitted.
7. That of the EARL. A rim of gold richly chased, on the upper edge of which are eight strawberry-leaves, and the same number of pearls set upon high points, so that it is readily distinguished from the coronet of the marquis. The cap, if shewn, the same as the first.
Sable, a roundle argent between three earl's coronets or--CORONA.
8. A VISCOUNT'S Coronet is a chased circle of gold supporting twelve, fourteen, or, as some say, sixteen pearls, but usually only seven visible. The cap resembles those of the other coronets. This coronet was appointed by King James I.
9. A BARON'S Coronet is a plain circle of gold having six large pearls upon it, four which are seen in a drawing. The cap as before. This coronet was assigned to barons on their petition to King Charles II., soon after his restoration. Before that period they wore caps of crimson velvet turned up with ermine, and at a still earlier period, scarlet caps turned up with white fur.
Crowned, (fr. couronné) Many cases of beasts, especially the lion, and sometimes birds, especially the eagle, being crowned. A ducal coronet is implied unless some other be expressly mentioned, but birds and beasts are sometimes described as crowned with a diadem(fr. diademmé), i.e. a plain fillet of metal. Also lions, dogs, and other animals are frequently gorged with a crown.
Argent, a lion rampant gules, crowned or--HILTON, Lanc.
Or, a lion rampant azure, crowned gules--CLYVEDON, Essex.
Argent, a lion rampant azure, crowned with a coronet of four balls azure or--Ralph de MAIDSTONE, Bp. of Hereford, 1234, 1239[MS. Add. B. Mus. 12443].
Per pale argent and gules, three bars counterchanged, on a canton of the second a rose crowned or--BARRETT, co. Cork.